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The number of subscriptions is predicted to rise to 5. Fragmentation restricts access to media content and tends to affect poorest users the most.
Equal rating prevents prioritization of one type of content and zero-rates all content up to a specified data cap.
A study published by Chatham House , 15 out of 19 countries researched in Latin America had some kind of hybrid or zero-rated product offered.
Some countries in the region had a handful of plans to choose from across all mobile network operators while others, such as Colombia , offered as many as 30 pre-paid and 34 post-paid plans.
A study of eight countries in the Global South found that zero-rated data plans exist in every country, although there is a great range in the frequency with which they are offered and actually used in each.
While the hardware components in the Internet infrastructure can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the standardization process of the software that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success.
The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards.
Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices BCP when implementing Internet technologies.
The Internet standards describe a framework known as the Internet protocol suite. The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate.
At the top is the application layer , space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications.
For example, a web browser program uses the client-server application model and a specific protocol of interaction between servers and clients, while many file-sharing systems use a peer-to-peer paradigm.
Below this top layer, the transport layer connects applications on different hosts with a logical channel through the network with appropriate data exchange methods.
Underlying these layers are the networking technologies that interconnect networks at their borders and exchange traffic across them.
The Internet layer enables computers "hosts" to identify each other via Internet Protocol IP addresses , and route their traffic to each other via any intermediate transit networks.
Last, at the bottom of the architecture is the link layer , which provides logical connectivity between hosts on the same network link, such as a local area network LAN or a dial-up connection.
Other models have been developed, such as the OSI model , that attempt to be comprehensive in every aspect of communications.
While many similarities exist between the models, they are not compatible in the details of description or implementation.
The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol IP , which provides addressing systems, including IP addresses , for computers on the network.
IP enables internetworking and, in essence, establishes the Internet itself. Internet Protocol Version 4 IPv4 is the initial version used on the first generation of the Internet and is still in dominant use.
However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion , which entered its final stage in ,  when the global address allocation pool was exhausted.
A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed in the mids, which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic.
IPv6 is currently in growing deployment around the world, since Internet address registries RIRs began to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion.
IPv6 is not directly interoperable by design with IPv4. In essence, it establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software.
Thus, translation facilities must exist for internetworking or nodes must have duplicate networking software for both networks.
Essentially all modern computer operating systems support both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructure, however, has been lagging in this development.
Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts, e.
Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Many people use, erroneously, the terms Internet and World Wide Web , or just the Web , interchangeably, but the two terms are not synonymous.
The World Wide Web is a primary application program that billions of people use on the Internet, and it has changed their lives immeasurably.
These documents may also contain any combination of computer data , including graphics, sounds, text , video , multimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page.
Client-side software can include animations, games , office applications and scientific demonstrations. Through keyword -driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo!
Compared to printed media, books, encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information on a large scale.
The Web is therefore a global set of documents , images and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers URIs.
URIs symbolically identify services, servers , and other databases, and the documents and resources that they can provide.
Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data.
The Web has enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay.
Publishing a web page, a blog, or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available.
However, publishing and maintaining large, professional web sites with attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition.
Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries.
Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result.
Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce , which is the sale of products and services directly via the Web, continues to grow.
Online advertising is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers.
It includes email marketing, search engine marketing SEM , social media marketing, many types of display advertising including web banner advertising , and mobile advertising.
In , Internet advertising revenues in the United States surpassed those of cable television and nearly exceeded those of broadcast television.
When the Web developed in the s, a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server, formatted in HTML , complete for transmission to a web browser in response to a request.
Over time, the process of creating and serving web pages has become dynamic, creating a flexible design, layout, and content.
Websites are often created using content management software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of an organization or the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose while casual visitors view and read this content in HTML form.
There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.
Email is an important communications service available on the Internet. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet.
Emails can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses. Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet.
The idea began in the early s with walkie-talkie -like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone.
The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL and mobile data.
Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available.
Simple, inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer.
Voice quality can still vary from call to call, but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls.
Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialing and reliability. Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available.
Older traditional phones with no "extra features" may be line-powered only and operate during a power failure; VoIP can never do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices.
VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications, as a form of communication between players. Modern video game consoles also offer VoIP chat features.
File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. A computer file can be emailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment.
It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of " mirror " servers or peer-to-peer networks.
In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication , the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption , and money may change hands for access to the file.
The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed — usually fully encrypted — across the Internet.
The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests.
These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission.
This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts.
This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.
Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions.
They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features.
These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver.
The range of available types of content is much wider, from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services.
Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where — usually audio — material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move.
These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide.
Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture either is usually small or updates slowly.
Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal , traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time.
Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound.
YouTube was founded on 15 February and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users.
It uses a HTML5 based web player by default to stream and show video files. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily.
The Internet has enabled new forms of social interaction, activities, and social associations. This phenomenon has given rise to the scholarly study of the sociology of the Internet.
Internet usage has seen tremendous growth. From to , the number of Internet users globally rose from million to 1. The prevalent language for communication on the Internet has been English.
This may be a result of the origin of the Internet, as well as the language's role as a lingua franca. However, some glitches such as mojibake incorrect display of some languages' characters still remain.
In an American study in , the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference reversed in those under Men logged on more often, spent more time online, and were more likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate such as email.
Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos.
Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking. Several neologisms exist that refer to Internet users: Netizen as in "citizen of the net"  refers to those actively involved in improving online communities , the Internet in general or surrounding political affairs and rights such as free speech ,   Internaut refers to operators or technically highly capable users of the Internet,   digital citizen refers to a person using the Internet in order to engage in society, politics, and government participation.
The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, including through mobile Internet devices.
Mobile phones, datacards , handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, the services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available.
Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.
Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Examples range from CBeebies , through school and high-school revision guides and virtual universities , to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar.
For distance education , help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time, or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere.
The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. Further, the Internet allows universities, in particular, researchers from the social and behavioral sciences, to conduct research remotely via virtual laboratories, with profound changes in reach and generalizability of findings as well as in communication between scientists and in the publication of results.
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills have made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software.
Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form. An example of this is the free software movement , which has produced, among other things, Linux , Mozilla Firefox , and OpenOffice.
Internet chat, whether using an IRC chat room, an instant messaging system, or a social networking website, allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way while working at their computers during the day.
Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. These systems may allow files to be exchanged, drawings and images to be shared, or voice and video contact between team members.
Content management systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents simultaneously without accidentally destroying each other's work.
Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.
Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy spread.
The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily from any access point. Access may be with computer security , i.
This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth.
These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world.
Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice.
An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can access their emails, access their data using cloud computing , or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure virtual private network VPN connection on the Internet.
This can give the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data, including email and other applications, while away from the office.
It has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare,  because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into remote locations and its employees' homes.
Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to pursue their personal interests.
People use chat , messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals.
Social networking websites such as Facebook , Twitter , and Myspace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others.
It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people.
Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs.
While social networking sites were initially for individuals only, today they are widely used by businesses and other organizations to promote their brands, to market to their customers and to encourage posts to " go viral ".
A risk for both individuals and organizations writing posts especially public posts on social networking websites, is that especially foolish or controversial posts occasionally lead to an unexpected and possibly large-scale backlash on social media from other Internet users.
This is also a risk in relation to controversial offline behavior, if it is widely made known. The nature of this backlash can range widely from counter-arguments and public mockery, through insults and hate speech , to, in extreme cases, rape and death threats.
The online disinhibition effect describes the tendency of many individuals to behave more stridently or offensively online than they would in person.
A significant number of feminist women have been the target of various forms of harassment in response to posts they have made on social media, and Twitter in particular has been criticised in the past for not doing enough to aid victims of online abuse.
For organizations, such a backlash can cause overall brand damage , especially if reported by the media. However, this is not always the case, as any brand damage in the eyes of people with an opposing opinion to that presented by the organization could sometimes be outweighed by strengthening the brand in the eyes of others.
Furthermore, if an organization or individual gives in to demands that others perceive as wrong-headed, that can then provoke a counter-backlash.
Some websites, such as Reddit , have rules forbidding the posting of personal information of individuals also known as doxxing , due to concerns about such postings leading to mobs of large numbers of Internet users directing harassment at the specific individuals thereby identified.
In particular, the Reddit rule forbidding the posting of personal information is widely understood to imply that all identifying photos and names must be censored in Facebook screenshots posted to Reddit.
However, the interpretation of this rule in relation to public Twitter posts is less clear, and in any case, like-minded people online have many other ways they can use to direct each other's attention to public social media posts they disagree with.
Children also face dangers online such as cyberbullying and approaches by sexual predators , who sometimes pose as children themselves.
Children may also encounter material which they may find upsetting, or material which their parents consider to be not age-appropriate.
Due to naivety, they may also post personal information about themselves online, which could put them or their families at risk unless warned not to do so.
The most popular social networking websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, commonly forbid users under the age of However, these policies are typically trivial to circumvent by registering an account with a false birth date, and a significant number of children aged under 13 join such sites anyway.
Social networking sites for younger children, which claim to provide better levels of protection for children, also exist.
The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic.
Another area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. While online gaming has been around since the s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer.
Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation.
Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies.
Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others.
Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness. Cybersectarianism is a new organizational form which involves: Overseas supporters provide funding and support; domestic practitioners distribute tracts, participate in acts of resistance, and share information on the internal situation with outsiders.
Collectively, members and practitioners of such sects construct viable virtual communities of faith, exchanging personal testimonies and engaging in the collective study via email, on-line chat rooms, and web-based message boards.
Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a study by Peninsula Business Services.
Carr believes that Internet use has other effects on individuals , for instance improving skills of scan-reading and interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity.
Electronic business e-business encompasses business processes spanning the entire value chain: E-commerce seeks to add revenue streams using the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners.
While much has been written of the economic advantages of Internet-enabled commerce , there is also evidence that some aspects of the Internet such as maps and location-aware services may serve to reinforce economic inequality and the digital divide.
Author Andrew Keen , a long-time critic of the social transformations caused by the Internet, has recently focused on the economic effects of consolidation from Internet businesses.
Telecommuting is the performance within a traditional worker and employer relationship when it is facilitated by tools such as groupware , virtual private networks , conference calling , videoconferencing , and voice over IP VOIP so that work may be performed from any location, most conveniently the worker's home.
It can be efficient and useful for companies as it allows workers to communicate over long distances, saving significant amounts of travel time and cost.
As broadband Internet connections become commonplace, more workers have adequate bandwidth at home to use these tools to link their home to their corporate intranet and internal communication networks.
Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.
Queens , New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool.
The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet.
Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing for carrying out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism , most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring.
Many have understood the Internet as an extension of the Habermasian notion of the public sphere , observing how network communication technologies provide something like a global civic forum.
However, incidents of politically motivated Internet censorship have now been recorded in many countries, including western democracies. The spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has opened up new possibilities for peer-to-peer charities, which allow individuals to contribute small amounts to charitable projects for other individuals.
Websites, such as DonorsChoose and GlobalGiving , allow small-scale donors to direct funds to individual projects of their choice.
A popular twist on Internet-based philanthropy is the use of peer-to-peer lending for charitable purposes. Kiva pioneered this concept in , offering the first web-based service to publish individual loan profiles for funding.
Kiva raises funds for local intermediary microfinance organizations which post stories and updates on behalf of the borrowers. Kiva falls short of being a pure peer-to-peer charity, in that loans are disbursed before being funded by lenders and borrowers do not communicate with lenders themselves.
However, the recent spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has made genuine international person-to-person philanthropy increasingly feasible.
In , the US-based nonprofit Zidisha tapped into this trend to offer the first person-to-person microfinance platform to link lenders and borrowers across international borders without intermediaries.
Members can fund loans for as little as a dollar, which the borrowers then use to develop business activities that improve their families' incomes while repaying loans to the members with interest.
Borrowers access the Internet via public cybercafes, donated laptops in village schools, and even smart phones, then create their own profile pages through which they share photos and information about themselves and their businesses.
As they repay their loans, borrowers continue to share updates and dialogue with lenders via their profile pages.
This direct web-based connection allows members themselves to take on many of the communication and recording tasks traditionally performed by local organizations, bypassing geographic barriers and dramatically reducing the cost of microfinance services to the entrepreneurs.
Internet resources, hardware, and software components are the target of criminal or malicious attempts to gain unauthorized control to cause interruptions, commit fraud, engage in blackmail or access private information.
Malicious software used and spread on the Internet includes computer viruses which copy with the help of humans, computer worms which copy themselves automatically, software for denial of service attacks , ransomware , botnets , and spyware that reports on the activity and typing of users.
Usually, these activities constitute cybercrime. Defense theorists have also speculated about the possibilities of cyber warfare using similar methods on a large scale.
The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. Computers communicate over the Internet by breaking up messages emails, images, videos, web pages, files, etc.
Packet Capture Appliance intercepts these packets as they are traveling through the network, in order to examine their contents using other programs.
A packet capture is an information gathering tool, but not an analysis tool. That is it gathers "messages" but it does not analyze them and figure out what they mean.
The large amount of data gathered from packet capturing requires surveillance software that filters and reports relevant information, such as the use of certain words or phrases, the access of certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or chat with certain parties.
Some governments, such as those of Burma , Iran , North Korea , the Mainland China , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates restrict access to content on the Internet within their territories, especially to political and religious content, with domain name and keyword filters.
In Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities.
While this list of forbidden resources is supposed to contain only known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret.
Many free or commercially available software programs, called content-control software are available to users to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit access by children to pornographic material or depiction of violence.
As the Internet is a heterogeneous network, the physical characteristics, including for example the data transfer rates of connections, vary widely.
It exhibits emergent phenomena that depend on its large-scale organization. An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signalling interruptions.
Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the submarine cable disruption.
Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links. Land cables are also vulnerable, as in when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia.
In , researchers estimated the energy used by the Internet to be between and GW, less than two percent of the energy used by humanity.
This estimate included the energy needed to build, operate, and periodically replace the estimated million laptops, a billion smart phones and million servers worldwide as well as the energy that routers, cell towers, optical switches, Wi-Fi transmitters and cloud storage devices use when transmitting Internet traffic.
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